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Following on from his exertions in Newfoundland, Cook wrote that he intended to go not only "farther than any man has been before me, but as far as I think it is possible for a man to go".

On 25 May , [23] the Admiralty commissioned Cook to command a scientific voyage to the Pacific Ocean. The purpose of the voyage was to observe and record the transit of Venus across the Sun which, when combined with observations from other places, would help to determine the distance of the Earth from the Sun.

Once the observations were completed, Cook opened the sealed orders, which were additional instructions from the Admiralty for the second part of his voyage: to search the south Pacific for signs of the postulated rich southern continent of Terra Australis.

He then voyaged west, reaching the southeastern coast of Australia on 19 April , and in doing so his expedition became the first recorded Europeans to have encountered its eastern coastline.

On 23 April, he made his first recorded direct observation of indigenous Australians at Brush Island near Bawley Point , noting in his journal: " Cook originally named the area "Stingray Bay", but later he crossed this out and named it " Botany Bay " [32] after the unique specimens retrieved by the botanists Joseph Banks and Daniel Solander.

It is here that Cook made first contact with an aboriginal tribe known as the Gweagal. After his departure from Botany Bay, he continued northwards.

On 24 May, Cook and Banks and others went ashore. Continuing north, on 11 June a mishap occurred when Endeavour ran aground on a shoal of the Great Barrier Reef , and then "nursed into a river mouth on 18 June ".

Leaving the east coast, Cook turned west and nursed his battered ship through the dangerously shallow waters of Torres Strait.

Searching for a vantage point, Cook saw a steep hill on a nearby island from the top of which he hoped to see "a passage into the Indian Seas".

Cook named the island Possession Island , where he claimed the entire coastline that he had just explored as British territory. Cook's journals were published upon his return, and he became something of a hero among the scientific community.

Among the general public, however, the aristocratic botanist Joseph Banks was a greater hero.

Cook's son George was born five days before he left for his second voyage. Shortly after his return from the first voyage, Cook was promoted in August to the rank of commander.

On his first voyage, Cook had demonstrated by circumnavigating New Zealand that it was not attached to a larger landmass to the south.

Although he charted almost the entire eastern coastline of Australia, showing it to be continental in size, the Terra Australis was believed to lie further south.

Despite this evidence to the contrary, Alexander Dalrymple and others of the Royal Society still believed that a massive southern continent should exist.

Cook's expedition circumnavigated the globe at an extreme southern latitude , becoming one of the first to cross the Antarctic Circle on 17 January In the Antarctic fog, Resolution and Adventure became separated.

Cook almost encountered the mainland of Antarctica but turned towards Tahiti to resupply his ship.

He then resumed his southward course in a second fruitless attempt to find the supposed continent. On this leg of the voyage, he brought a young Tahitian named Omai , who proved to be somewhat less knowledgeable about the Pacific than Tupaia had been on the first voyage.

He then turned north to South Africa and from there continued back to England. His reports upon his return home put to rest the popular myth of Terra Australis.

Cook's second voyage marked a successful employment of Larcum Kendall's K1 copy of John Harrison 's H4 marine chronometer , which enabled Cook to calculate his longitudinal position with much greater accuracy.

Upon his return, Cook was promoted to the rank of post-captain and given an honorary retirement from the Royal Navy, with a posting as an officer of the Greenwich Hospital.

He reluctantly accepted, insisting that he be allowed to quit the post if an opportunity for active duty should arise.

A third voyage was planned, and Cook volunteered to find the Northwest Passage. He travelled to the Pacific and hoped to travel east to the Atlantic, while a simultaneous voyage travelled the opposite route.

The voyage was ostensibly planned to return the Pacific Islander Omai to Tahiti, or so the public was led to believe.

The trip's principal goal was to locate a Northwest Passage around the American continent. From the Sandwich Islands, Cook sailed north and then northeast to explore the west coast of North America north of the Spanish settlements in Alta California.

He anchored near the First Nations village of Yuquot. Relations between Cook's crew and the people of Yuquot were cordial but sometimes strained.

In trading, the people of Yuquot demanded much more valuable items than the usual trinkets that had been acceptable in Hawaii.

Metal objects were much desired, but the lead, pewter, and tin traded at first soon fell into disrepute. The most valuable items which the British received in trade were sea otter pelts.

During the stay, the Yuquot "hosts" essentially controlled the trade with the British vessels; the natives usually visited the British vessels at Resolution Cove instead of the British visiting the village of Yuquot at Friendly Cove.

After leaving Nootka Sound, Cook explored and mapped the coast all the way to the Bering Strait , on the way identifying what came to be known as Cook Inlet in Alaska.

In a single visit, Cook charted the majority of the North American northwest coastline on world maps for the first time, determined the extent of Alaska, and closed the gaps in Russian from the west and Spanish from the south exploratory probes of the northern limits of the Pacific.

Cook then sailed west to the Siberian coast, and then southeast down the Siberian coast back to the Bering Strait. Cook returned to Hawaii in After sailing around the archipelago for some eight weeks, he made landfall at Kealakekua Bay on Hawai'i Island , largest island in the Hawaiian Archipelago.

Cook's arrival coincided with the Makahiki , a Hawaiian harvest festival of worship for the Polynesian god Lono. Coincidentally the form of Cook's ship, HMS Resolution , or more particularly the mast formation, sails and rigging, resembled certain significant artefacts that formed part of the season of worship.

It has been argued most extensively by Marshall Sahlins that such coincidences were the reasons for Cook's and to a limited extent, his crew's initial deification by some Hawaiians who treated Cook as an incarnation of Lono.

After a month's stay, Cook attempted to resume his exploration of the northern Pacific. Shortly after leaving Hawaii Island, however, Resolution ' s foremast broke, so the ships returned to Kealakekua Bay for repairs.

Tensions rose, and a number of quarrels broke out between the Europeans and Hawaiians at Kealakekua Bay. An unknown group of Hawaiians took one of Cook's small boats.

The evening when the cutter was taken, the people had become "insolent" even with threats to fire upon them.

The following day, 14 February , Cook marched through the village to retrieve the king. They pleaded with the king not to go. An old kahuna priest , chanting rapidly while holding out a coconut, attempted to distract Cook and his men as a large crowd began to form at the shore.

The king began to understand that Cook was his enemy. The esteem which the islanders nevertheless held for Cook caused them to retain his body.

Following their practice of the time, they prepared his body with funerary rituals usually reserved for the chiefs and highest elders of the society.

The body was disembowelled , baked to facilitate removal of the flesh , and the bones were carefully cleaned for preservation as religious icons in a fashion somewhat reminiscent of the treatment of European saints in the Middle Ages.

Some of Cook's remains, thus preserved, were eventually returned to his crew for a formal burial at sea. Clerke assumed leadership of the expedition and made a final attempt to pass through the Bering Strait.

James King replaced Gore in command of Discovery. After their arrival in England, King completed Cook's account of the voyage.

He was a modest man, and rather bashful; of an agreeable lively conversation, sensible and intelligent.

In temper he was somewhat hasty, but of a disposition the most friendly, benevolent and humane. His person was above six feet high: and, though a good looking man, he was plain both in dress and appearance.

His face was full of expression: his nose extremely well shaped: his eyes which were small and of a brown cast, were quick and piercing; his eyebrows prominent, which gave his countenance altogether an air of austerity.

At that time the collection consisted of artefacts collected on Cook's three voyages throughout the Pacific Ocean, during the period —80, along with documents and memorabilia related to these voyages.

Many of the ethnographic artefacts were collected at a time of first contact between Pacific Peoples and Europeans. The provenance of the collection shows that the objects remained in the hands of Cook's widow Elizabeth Cook, and her descendants, until Alexander, and William Adams.

Cook's 12 years sailing around the Pacific Ocean contributed much to Europeans' knowledge of the area. Several islands, such as the Hawaiian group, were encountered for the first time by Europeans, and his more accurate navigational charting of large areas of the Pacific was a major achievement.

Navigators had been able to work out latitude accurately for centuries by measuring the angle of the sun or a star above the horizon with an instrument such as a backstaff or quadrant.

Longitude was more difficult to measure accurately because it requires precise knowledge of the time difference between points on the surface of the earth.

The Earth turns a full degrees relative to the sun each day. Thus longitude corresponds to time: 15 degrees every hour, or 1 degree every 4 minutes.

It was a copy of the H4 clock made by John Harrison , which proved to be the first to keep accurate time at sea when used on the ship Deptford ' s journey to Jamaica in — He tested several preventive measures, most importantly the frequent replenishment of fresh food.

He correctly postulated a link among all the Pacific peoples, despite their being separated by great ocean stretches see Malayo-Polynesian languages.

Cook theorised that Polynesians originated from Asia, which scientist Bryan Sykes later verified. Cook carried several scientists on his voyages; they made significant observations and discoveries.

The two collected over 3, plant species. Artists also sailed on Cook's first voyage.

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Breitengrad, bevor er am Dezember wegen des Eises wieder Kurs Nord befahl. Januar steuerte er wieder südwärts, zum Entsetzen der Mannschaft, die sich bereits auf der Heimreise gewähnt hatte.

Forster willigte ein, seinen Lieblingshund schlachten und zubereiten zu lassen, um den Kapitän zu kurieren — mit Erfolg Cook erreichte am April , den Neuen Hebriden und nochmals Neuseeland, wobei er noch Neukaledonien entdeckte.

Später stellte sich heraus, dass ein Landungsboot mit elf Männern angegriffen, die Männer getötet und möglicherweise verzehrt worden waren.

Sie hatte damit als erste die Erde auf östlichem Kurs umsegelt. Die Resolution stach am Von Kapstadt richtete die Resolution den Kurs auf St.

Jahrhunderts eingezeichnet war, und stand so nahe an Brasilien, dass Cook sich entschied, noch die Position von Fernando de Noronha zu bestimmen.

Über die Azoren kehrte man am Juli nach England zurück. Von den Mann Besatzung waren unterwegs nur vier gestorben zwei durch Unfälle, einer durch Alkoholvergiftung, ein Selbstmord , keiner davon an Skorbut.

Geplanter Reisegrund war die Nordwestpassage. Da Frachten aus dem Fernen Osten stark zugenommen hatten, war eine kürzere und in Kriegszeiten sicherere Route im Norden nicht nur Konversationsthema.

Dass der Däne Bering schon dort gesucht hatte, war bekannt, wenngleich ohne Details. Niemand hätte Cook eine weitere derartige Belastung zugemutet: Er selbst bot sich an und durfte erwarten, nicht abgelehnt zu werden.

Cooks Entdeckungsreisen hatten mittlerweile auch internationale Beachtung gefunden. Erste Vermessungsarbeiten machte Cook Ende Dezember etwa eine Woche lang auf den Kerguelen , die ihr Entdecker ebenfalls noch für einen Teil des Südkontinents gehalten und France Australe genannt hatte.

Cook nannte sie Armutsinseln , bevor er sich in Richtung Neuseeland wandte. Ende Januar traf er in der Adventure Bay von Tasmanien ein, wo die Kontakte zu den Einheimischen durch Omai beeinträchtigt wurden, der ihre Annäherungsversuche missdeutete und seine Waffe abfeuerte.

Nach Entdeckung einiger der südlichen Cookinseln waren die Schiffe im Februar im Königin-Charlotte-Sund , wo sie knapp zwei Wochen lang instand gesetzt wurden.

Von dort segelte er weiter nach Tongatapu , wo er festlich empfangen und bewirtet wurde und am 5. Juli eine Sonnenfinsternis beobachtete.

Cook entdeckte am Dezember Kiritimati und beobachtete am Dezember eine weitere Sonnenfinsternis auf Eclipse Island. Januar tauchten hohe Inseln am Horizont auf, und am Auf Westkurs erreichte Cook danach Asien und gelangte bis Kap Deschnjow , den östlichsten Punkt der sibirischen Küste, bevor er wieder in die Aleuten zurückkehrte.

Auf Unalaska traf er russische Pelzhändler, konnte Kartenmaterial der Aleuten und der Halbinsel Kamtschatka kopieren und erhielt von einem Geschäftsmann namens Ismailow ein Empfehlungsschreiben an den Gouverneur von Kamtschatka und Petropawlowsk.

Über Ismailow sandte er Post an die Admiralität. Als ihn der Winter aus den hohen Breiten vertrieb, nahm Cook am Ob er für den Gott selbst gehalten wurde, ist ein langjähriges Streitthema.

Fest steht, dass seine Mannschaft durch ihr Verhalten die Einheimischen bald eines anderen belehrte. Spätestens als ein verstorbener Matrose an einem Platz beerdigt wurde, der nur Häuptlingen zustand, muss sich die Einstellung der Hawaiier gegen ihre Gäste gewendet haben.

Da Cook zwei Tage später, am 4. Februar , aufbrach, kam es nicht mehr zu Tätlichkeiten. Als er jedoch am Februar wieder zurückkehrte, um einen im Sturm beschädigten Mast der Resolution zu ersetzen, waren die Beziehungen ruiniert.

Cook musste am Februar dafür mit seinem Leben bezahlen. Nachdem ein erster Schrotschuss, den er aus seiner doppelläufigen Flinte abgegeben hatte, keine Wirkung gezeigt hatte, weil er im Schild eines Angreifers steckengeblieben war, gab er als zweiten Schuss eine Kugel ab und tötete damit einen anderen.

Während er sich umdrehte, um Befehle zu erteilen, wurde er von hinten niedergestochen, fiel mit dem Gesicht ins Wasser, wurde herausgezerrt und niedergemetzelt.

Clerke war klug genug, von Repressalien Abstand zu nehmen, und erhielt über Vermittlung des Priesters und eines Sohnes des Königs wenigstens einige Körperteile Cooks und der Seesoldaten ausgehändigt, was bis zum Februar dauerte, da die Leichname zerstückelt und an mehrere Familien verteilt worden waren.

Teilweise waren sie auch verbrannt worden. Dies galt bei den Hawaiiern als Tradition, um einen Häuptling nach seinem Tod zu ehren und zu bestatten.

Februar wurde für ihn in der Bucht eine Seebestattung abgehalten. Am nächsten Tag brachen die Schiffe auf. Sie segelten nordwärts nach Petropawlowsk, wo sie von den Russen freundlich aufgenommen wurden.

Der in Virginia geborene Lieutenant Gore, der bereits an Cooks erster Pazifikreise teilgenommen hatte, führte die Expedition nach England zurück, wo sie am 6.

Oktober eintraf. Cook wird als ruhiger und sehr gewissenhafter Mann beschrieben. Als Expeditionsleiter fühlte er sich zwar seinem jeweiligen Auftrag sehr verpflichtet, doch sein ständiges Bestreben, den Ausbruch des auf Seereisen zu jener Zeit häufigen Skorbut zu vermeiden, spricht auch dafür, dass ihm das Wohlergehen aller Beteiligten ebenso wichtig war wie der Erfolg.

Nach den 38 Todesfällen auf der ersten Fahrt machte er sich viele Gedanken darüber, wie die Zahl der Verstorbenen gesenkt werden konnte.

Auf der zweiten Fahrt waren nur noch vier Tote zu beklagen, eine bemerkenswert geringe Anzahl für eine so lange Reise zu jener Zeit.

Cook heiratete Elisabeth Batts und hatte mit ihr sechs Kinder. Der neugeborene Sohn Joseph starb , die vierjährige Tochter , der neugeborene George also während der zweiten Pazifikreise , und keiner der übrigen wurde alt.

Cook erhielt von der Admiralität eine stattliche Pension von Pfund jährlich und starb im Alter von 94 Jahren.

Die Erfahrungen Cooks haben trotz vieler Widerstände innerhalb der Royal Navy später dazu geführt, dass die Besatzungen der englischen Kriegs- und Handelsmarine zu einer entsprechenden Vitamin-C-haltigen Diät verpflichtet wurden.

Zu Ehren Cooks wurden zahlreiche moderne Münzen und noch mehr Medaillen ausgegeben. Jahrestag der Ankunft von James Cook in Hawaii.

Die Rückseite dieser Medaille zu Cooks Andenken [19]. März gesendet. Der Titel dieses Artikels ist mehrdeutig. Following on from his exertions in Newfoundland, Cook wrote that he intended to go not only "farther than any man has been before me, but as far as I think it is possible for a man to go".

On 25 May , [23] the Admiralty commissioned Cook to command a scientific voyage to the Pacific Ocean. The purpose of the voyage was to observe and record the transit of Venus across the Sun which, when combined with observations from other places, would help to determine the distance of the Earth from the Sun.

Once the observations were completed, Cook opened the sealed orders, which were additional instructions from the Admiralty for the second part of his voyage: to search the south Pacific for signs of the postulated rich southern continent of Terra Australis.

He then voyaged west, reaching the southeastern coast of Australia on 19 April , and in doing so his expedition became the first recorded Europeans to have encountered its eastern coastline.

On 23 April, he made his first recorded direct observation of indigenous Australians at Brush Island near Bawley Point , noting in his journal: " Cook originally named the area "Stingray Bay", but later he crossed this out and named it " Botany Bay " [32] after the unique specimens retrieved by the botanists Joseph Banks and Daniel Solander.

It is here that Cook made first contact with an aboriginal tribe known as the Gweagal. After his departure from Botany Bay, he continued northwards.

On 24 May, Cook and Banks and others went ashore. Continuing north, on 11 June a mishap occurred when Endeavour ran aground on a shoal of the Great Barrier Reef , and then "nursed into a river mouth on 18 June ".

Leaving the east coast, Cook turned west and nursed his battered ship through the dangerously shallow waters of Torres Strait.

Searching for a vantage point, Cook saw a steep hill on a nearby island from the top of which he hoped to see "a passage into the Indian Seas".

Cook named the island Possession Island , where he claimed the entire coastline that he had just explored as British territory.

Cook's journals were published upon his return, and he became something of a hero among the scientific community.

Among the general public, however, the aristocratic botanist Joseph Banks was a greater hero. Cook's son George was born five days before he left for his second voyage.

Shortly after his return from the first voyage, Cook was promoted in August to the rank of commander. On his first voyage, Cook had demonstrated by circumnavigating New Zealand that it was not attached to a larger landmass to the south.

Although he charted almost the entire eastern coastline of Australia, showing it to be continental in size, the Terra Australis was believed to lie further south.

Despite this evidence to the contrary, Alexander Dalrymple and others of the Royal Society still believed that a massive southern continent should exist.

Cook's expedition circumnavigated the globe at an extreme southern latitude , becoming one of the first to cross the Antarctic Circle on 17 January In the Antarctic fog, Resolution and Adventure became separated.

Cook almost encountered the mainland of Antarctica but turned towards Tahiti to resupply his ship. He then resumed his southward course in a second fruitless attempt to find the supposed continent.

On this leg of the voyage, he brought a young Tahitian named Omai , who proved to be somewhat less knowledgeable about the Pacific than Tupaia had been on the first voyage.

He then turned north to South Africa and from there continued back to England. His reports upon his return home put to rest the popular myth of Terra Australis.

Cook's second voyage marked a successful employment of Larcum Kendall's K1 copy of John Harrison 's H4 marine chronometer , which enabled Cook to calculate his longitudinal position with much greater accuracy.

Upon his return, Cook was promoted to the rank of post-captain and given an honorary retirement from the Royal Navy, with a posting as an officer of the Greenwich Hospital.

He reluctantly accepted, insisting that he be allowed to quit the post if an opportunity for active duty should arise.

A third voyage was planned, and Cook volunteered to find the Northwest Passage. He travelled to the Pacific and hoped to travel east to the Atlantic, while a simultaneous voyage travelled the opposite route.

The voyage was ostensibly planned to return the Pacific Islander Omai to Tahiti, or so the public was led to believe. The trip's principal goal was to locate a Northwest Passage around the American continent.

From the Sandwich Islands, Cook sailed north and then northeast to explore the west coast of North America north of the Spanish settlements in Alta California.

He anchored near the First Nations village of Yuquot. Relations between Cook's crew and the people of Yuquot were cordial but sometimes strained.

In trading, the people of Yuquot demanded much more valuable items than the usual trinkets that had been acceptable in Hawaii.

Metal objects were much desired, but the lead, pewter, and tin traded at first soon fell into disrepute. The most valuable items which the British received in trade were sea otter pelts.

During the stay, the Yuquot "hosts" essentially controlled the trade with the British vessels; the natives usually visited the British vessels at Resolution Cove instead of the British visiting the village of Yuquot at Friendly Cove.

After leaving Nootka Sound, Cook explored and mapped the coast all the way to the Bering Strait , on the way identifying what came to be known as Cook Inlet in Alaska.

In a single visit, Cook charted the majority of the North American northwest coastline on world maps for the first time, determined the extent of Alaska, and closed the gaps in Russian from the west and Spanish from the south exploratory probes of the northern limits of the Pacific.

Cook then sailed west to the Siberian coast, and then southeast down the Siberian coast back to the Bering Strait.

Cook returned to Hawaii in After sailing around the archipelago for some eight weeks, he made landfall at Kealakekua Bay on Hawai'i Island , largest island in the Hawaiian Archipelago.

Cook's arrival coincided with the Makahiki , a Hawaiian harvest festival of worship for the Polynesian god Lono. Coincidentally the form of Cook's ship, HMS Resolution , or more particularly the mast formation, sails and rigging, resembled certain significant artefacts that formed part of the season of worship.

It has been argued most extensively by Marshall Sahlins that such coincidences were the reasons for Cook's and to a limited extent, his crew's initial deification by some Hawaiians who treated Cook as an incarnation of Lono.

After a month's stay, Cook attempted to resume his exploration of the northern Pacific. Shortly after leaving Hawaii Island, however, Resolution ' s foremast broke, so the ships returned to Kealakekua Bay for repairs.

Tensions rose, and a number of quarrels broke out between the Europeans and Hawaiians at Kealakekua Bay. An unknown group of Hawaiians took one of Cook's small boats.

The evening when the cutter was taken, the people had become "insolent" even with threats to fire upon them.

The following day, 14 February , Cook marched through the village to retrieve the king. They pleaded with the king not to go. An old kahuna priest , chanting rapidly while holding out a coconut, attempted to distract Cook and his men as a large crowd began to form at the shore.

The king began to understand that Cook was his enemy. The esteem which the islanders nevertheless held for Cook caused them to retain his body.

Following their practice of the time, they prepared his body with funerary rituals usually reserved for the chiefs and highest elders of the society.

The body was disembowelled , baked to facilitate removal of the flesh , and the bones were carefully cleaned for preservation as religious icons in a fashion somewhat reminiscent of the treatment of European saints in the Middle Ages.

Some of Cook's remains, thus preserved, were eventually returned to his crew for a formal burial at sea. Clerke assumed leadership of the expedition and made a final attempt to pass through the Bering Strait.

James King replaced Gore in command of Discovery. After their arrival in England, King completed Cook's account of the voyage. He was a modest man, and rather bashful; of an agreeable lively conversation, sensible and intelligent.

In temper he was somewhat hasty, but of a disposition the most friendly, benevolent and humane. His person was above six feet high: and, though a good looking man, he was plain both in dress and appearance.

His face was full of expression: his nose extremely well shaped: his eyes which were small and of a brown cast, were quick and piercing; his eyebrows prominent, which gave his countenance altogether an air of austerity.

At that time the collection consisted of artefacts collected on Cook's three voyages throughout the Pacific Ocean, during the period —80, along with documents and memorabilia related to these voyages.

Many of the ethnographic artefacts were collected at a time of first contact between Pacific Peoples and Europeans.

The provenance of the collection shows that the objects remained in the hands of Cook's widow Elizabeth Cook, and her descendants, until Alexander, and William Adams.

Cook's 12 years sailing around the Pacific Ocean contributed much to Europeans' knowledge of the area.

Several islands, such as the Hawaiian group, were encountered for the first time by Europeans, and his more accurate navigational charting of large areas of the Pacific was a major achievement.

Navigators had been able to work out latitude accurately for centuries by measuring the angle of the sun or a star above the horizon with an instrument such as a backstaff or quadrant.

Longitude was more difficult to measure accurately because it requires precise knowledge of the time difference between points on the surface of the earth.

The Earth turns a full degrees relative to the sun each day. Thus longitude corresponds to time: 15 degrees every hour, or 1 degree every 4 minutes.

It was a copy of the H4 clock made by John Harrison , which proved to be the first to keep accurate time at sea when used on the ship Deptford ' s journey to Jamaica in — He tested several preventive measures, most importantly the frequent replenishment of fresh food.

He correctly postulated a link among all the Pacific peoples, despite their being separated by great ocean stretches see Malayo-Polynesian languages.

Cook theorised that Polynesians originated from Asia, which scientist Bryan Sykes later verified. Cook carried several scientists on his voyages; they made significant observations and discoveries.

The two collected over 3, plant species. Artists also sailed on Cook's first voyage. Sydney Parkinson was heavily involved in documenting the botanists' findings, completing drawings before his death near the end of the voyage.

They were of immense scientific value to British botanists. Several officers who served under Cook went on to distinctive accomplishments.

Bligh became known for the mutiny of his crew , which resulted in his being set adrift in George Dixon , who sailed under Cook on his third expedition, later commanded his own.

Cook's contributions to knowledge gained international recognition during his lifetime. In , while the American colonies were fighting Britain for their independence , Benjamin Franklin wrote to captains of colonial warships at sea, recommending that if they came into contact with Cook's vessel, they were to "not consider her an enemy, nor suffer any plunder to be made of the effects contained in her, nor obstruct her immediate return to England by detaining her or sending her into any other part of Europe or to America; but that you treat the said Captain Cook and his people with all civility and kindness The first recorded circumnavigation of the world by an animal was by Cook's goat, [ citation needed ] who made that memorable journey twice [ citation needed ] : the first time on HMS Dolphin , under Samuel Wallis , and then aboard Endeavour.

When they returned to England, Cook had the goat presented with a silver collar engraved with lines from Samuel Johnson : Perpetui, ambita bis terra, praemia lactis Haec habet altrici Capra secunda Jovis.

She was put to pasture on Cook's farm outside London and was reportedly admitted to the privileges of the Royal Naval Hospital at Greenwich.

Minted for the th anniversary of his discovery of the islands, its low mintage 10, has made this example of Early United States commemorative coins both scarce and expensive.

The first institution of higher education in North Queensland, Australia, was named after him, with James Cook University opening in Townsville in A large aquatic monument is planned for Cook's landing place at Botany Bay , Sydney.

One of the earliest monuments to Cook in the United Kingdom is located at The Vache , erected in by Admiral Hugh Palliser , a contemporary of Cook and one-time owner of the estate.

Cook's widow Elizabeth was also buried in the church and in her will left money for the memorial's upkeep.

The th anniversary of Cook's birth was marked at the site of his birthplace in Marton by the opening of the Captain Cook Birthplace Museum , located within Stewart Park A granite vase just to the south of the museum marks the approximate spot where he was born.

Also named after Cook is James Cook University Hospital , a major teaching hospital which opened in with a railway station serving it called James Cook opening in In , Kenneth Slessor 's poem " Five Visions of Captain Cook " was the "most dramatic break-through" in Australian poetry of the 20th century according to poet Douglas Stewart.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Captain Cook disambiguation and James Cook disambiguation.

Marton , Yorkshire, England. Kealakekua Bay , Hawaii. Main article: First voyage of James Cook. Main article: Second voyage of James Cook.

Main article: Third voyage of James Cook. Sydney University Press. London Borough of Barking and Dagenham. Archived from the original PDF on 5 June Retrieved 5 March University of New South Wales Press.

Retrieved 5 September Life in the Royal Navy — Retrieved 22 September Newfoundland Historical Society Pamphlet Number 3.

Retrieved 27 August Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Retrieved 2 November Narrative of the voyages round the world, performed by Captain James Cook; with an account of his life during the previous and intervening periods.

Chapter 2. Retrieved 24 July — via Wikisource. The Sydney Morning Herald. National Library of Australia.

Retrieved 4 September

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