Pompeii Vulkan Navigationsmenü
verschüttet wurde, unter der Vulkanasche aber weitgehend konserviert blieb. In seiner etwa siebenhundertjährigen Geschichte wurde Pompeji von Oskern. Der Vesuv, ein großer Vulkan, lässt selbst jedoch nichts von dem bevorstehenden Vulkanausbruch ahnen. Zeichen hätten die Menschen damals aber auch nicht. Denn der Vulkanausbruch konservierte das römische Alltagsleben der beiden Städte wie eine zeitlich unverfälschte Momentaufnahme für die Nachwelt. In der. Bislang galt als sicher, dass sich der Ausbruch des Vesuvs, der Pompeji und Herculaneum verschüttete, am August 79 n. Chr. ereignet hat. Er ist der gefährlichste Vulkan der Welt: der Campi Flegrei - ein Supervulkan im Westen Neapels. Der feuerspeiende Riese wird immer aktiver.
Bislang galt als sicher, dass sich der Ausbruch des Vesuvs, der Pompeji und Herculaneum verschüttete, am August 79 n. Chr. ereignet hat. Denn der Vulkanausbruch konservierte das römische Alltagsleben der beiden Städte wie eine zeitlich unverfälschte Momentaufnahme für die Nachwelt. In der. verschüttet wurde, unter der Vulkanasche aber weitgehend konserviert blieb. In seiner etwa siebenhundertjährigen Geschichte wurde Pompeji von Oskern.
Pompeii Vulkan - Neuer AbschnittAlgen - Ein unbekannter Rohstoff 53 min. Quelle: dpa. Dabei scheute man sich nicht, ganze Wandgemälde von den Mauern zu lösen und wegzuschaffen. Die von ihnen betriebenen Werkstätten tabernae befanden sich in den Städten meist im Erdgeschoss der Mietshausblöcke insulae. Mit der Wiederentdeckung im
Organic remains, including wooden objects and human bodies, were entombed in the ash and decayed leaving voids which archaeologists found could be used as moulds to make plaster casts of unique and often gruesome figures in their final moments of life.
The numerous graffiti carved on the walls and inside rooms provide a wealth of examples of the largely lost Vulgar Latin spoken colloquially at the time, contrasting with the formal language of the classical writers.
After many excavations prior to that had uncovered most of the city but left it in decay,  further major excavations were banned and instead they were limited to targeted, prioritised areas.
In , these led to new discoveries in some previously unexplored areas of the city. According to Theodor Kraus, "The root of the word Pompeii would appear to be the Oscan word for the number five, pompe , which suggests that either the community consisted of five hamlets or perhaps it was settled by a family group gens Pompeia.
The plateau fell steeply to the south and partly the west and into the sea. Three sheets of sediment from large landslides lie on top of the lava, perhaps triggered by extended rainfall.
The mouth of the navigable Sarno River , adjacent to the city, was protected by lagoons and served early Greek and Phoenician sailors as a safe haven and port which was developed further by the Romans.
Pompeii covered a total of 64 to 67 hectares to acres and was home to 11, to 11, people, based on household counts.
Although best known for its Roman remains visible today dating from AD 79, it was built upon a substantial city dating from much earlier times.
Expansion of the city from an early nucleus the old town accelerated already from BC under the Greeks after the battle of Cumae.
The first stable settlements on the site date back to the 8th century BC when the Oscans ,  a people of central Italy, founded five villages in the area.
With the arrival of the Greeks in Campania from around BC, Pompeii entered the orbit of the Hellenic people and the most important building of this period is the Doric Temple, built away from the centre in what would later become the Triangular Forum.
In the early 6th century BC, the settlement merged into a single community centred on the important crossroad between Cumae , Nola , and Stabiae and was surrounded by a tufa city wall the pappamonte wall.
The city began to flourish and maritime trade started with the construction of a small port near the mouth of the river. In BC, the Etruscans arrived and settled in the area, including Pompeii, finding in the River Sarno a communication route between the sea and the interior.
Like the Greeks, the Etruscans did not conquer the city militarily, but simply controlled it and Pompeii enjoyed a sort of autonomy. The period between about — BC witnessed large areas of the city being abandoned while important sanctuaries such as the Temple of Apollo show a sudden lack of votive material remains.
The Samnites , people from the areas of Abruzzo and Molise , and allies of the Romans, conquered Greek Cumae between and BC and it is likely that all the surrounding territory, including Pompeii, was already conquered around BC.
The new rulers gradually imposed their architecture and enlarged the town. Pompeii, although governed by the Samnites, entered the Roman orbit, to which it remained faithful even during the third Samnite war and in the war against Pyrrhus.
In the late 4th century BC the city began to expand from its nucleus and into the open walled area. The street plan of the new areas was more regular and more conformal to Hippodamus 's street plan.
The city walls were reinforced in Sarno stone in the early 3rd century BC the limestone enceinte , or the "first Samnite wall". It formed the basis for the currently visible walls with an outer wall of rectangular limestone blocks as a terrace wall supporting a large agger , or earth embankment, behind it.
After the Samnite Wars from BC, Pompeii was forced to accept the status of socii of Rome, maintaining, however, linguistic and administrative autonomy.
In the 2nd century BC, Pompeii enriched itself by taking part in Rome's conquest of the east as shown by a statue of Apollo in the Forum erected by Lucius Mummius in gratitude for their support in the sack of Corinth and the eastern campaigns.
These riches enabled Pompeii to bloom and expand to its ultimate limits. The forum and many public and private buildings of high architectural quality were built, including Teatro Grande , the Temple of Jupiter , the Basilica, the Comitium, the Stabian Baths and a new two-story portico.
Pompeii was one of the towns of Campania that rebelled against Rome in the Social Wars and in 89 BC it was besieged by Sulla , who targeted the strategically vulnerable Porta Ercolano with his artillery as can still be seen by the impact craters of thousands of ballista shots in the walls.
Many nearby buildings inside the walls were also destroyed. Many of Sulla's veterans were given land and property in and around the city, while many of those who opposed Rome were dispossessed of their property.
Despite this, the Pompeians were granted Roman citizenship and they were quickly assimilated into the Roman world. The main language in the city became Latin,  and many of Pompeii's old aristocratic families Latinized their names as a sign of assimilation.
The city became an important passage for goods that arrived by sea and had to be sent toward Rome or Southern Italy along the nearby Appian Way.
Many public buildings were built or refurbished and improved under the new order; new buildings included the Amphitheatre of Pompeii in 70 BC, the Forum Baths, and the Odeon , while the forum was embellished with the colonnade of Popidius before 80 BC.
Under Augustus , from about 30 BC a major expansion in new public buildings, as in the rest of the empire, included the Eumachia Building , the Sanctuary of Augustus and the Macellum.
In AD 59, there was a serious riot and bloodshed in the amphitheatre between Pompeians and Nucerians which is recorded in a fresco and which led the Roman senate to send the Praetorian Guard to restore order and to ban further events for a period of ten years.
The inhabitants of Pompeii had long been used to minor earthquakes indeed, the writer Pliny the Younger wrote that earth tremors "were not particularly alarming because they are frequent in Campania" , but on 5 February 62  a severe earthquake did considerable damage around the bay, and particularly to Pompeii.
It is believed that the earthquake would have registered between about 5 and 6 on the Richter magnitude scale.
On that day in Pompeii, there were to be two sacrifices, as it was the anniversary of Augustus being named "Father of the Nation" and also a feast day to honour the guardian spirits of the city.
Chaos followed the earthquake; fires caused by oil lamps that had fallen during the quake added to the panic. The nearby cities of Herculaneum and Nuceria were also affected.
Between 62 and the eruption in 79 most rebuilding was done in the private sector and older, damaged frescoes were often covered with newer ones, for example.
In the public sector the opportunity was taken to improve buildings and the city plan e. An important field of current research concerns structures that were restored between the earthquake of 62 and the eruption.
It was thought until recently that some of the damage had still not been repaired at the time of the eruption but this has been shown to be doubtful as the evidence of missing forum statues and marble wall-veneers are most likely due to robbers after the city's burial.
Some buildings like the Central Baths were only started after the earthquake and were built to enhance the city with modern developments in their architecture, as had been done in Rome, in terms of wall-heating and window glass, and with well-lit spacious rooms.
The new baths took over a whole insula by demolishing houses, which may have been made easier by the earthquake that had damaged these houses.
This shows that the city was still flourishing rather than struggling to recover from the earthquake. In about 64, Nero and his wife Poppaea visited Pompeii and made gifts to the temple of Venus, probably when he performed in the theatre of Naples.
By 79, Pompeii had a population of 20,,  which had prospered from the region's renowned agricultural fertility and favourable location.
The eruption lasted for two days. That only approximately 1, bodies  have so far been found on site seems to confirm this theory and most escapees probably managed to salvage some of their most valuable belongings; many skeletons were found with jewellery, coins and silverware.
At some time in the night or early the next day, pyroclastic flows began near the volcano, consisting of high speed, dense, and very hot ash clouds, knocking down wholly or partly all structures in their path, incinerating or suffocating the remaining population and altering the landscape, including the coastline.
By evening of the second day, the eruption was over, leaving only haze in the atmosphere through which the sun shone weakly.
A multidisciplinary volcanological and bio-anthropological study  of the eruption products and victims, merged with numerical simulations and experiments, indicates that at Pompeii and surrounding towns heat was the main cause of death of people, previously believed to have died by ash suffocation.
The people and buildings of Pompeii were covered in up to twelve different layers of tephra , in total up to 6 metres Pliny the Younger provided a first-hand account of the eruption of Mount Vesuvius from his position across the Bay of Naples at Misenum but written 25 years after the event.
As admiral of the fleet, Pliny the Elder had ordered the ships of the Imperial Navy stationed at Misenum to cross the bay to assist evacuation attempts.
Volcanologists have recognised the importance of Pliny the Younger's account of the eruption by calling similar events " Plinian ".
It had long been thought that the eruption was an August event based on one version of the letter but another version  gives a date of the eruption as late as 23 November.
A later date is consistent with a charcoal inscription at the site, discovered in , which includes the date of 17 October and which must have been recently written.
Nuts from chestnut trees were found at Oplontis which would not have been mature before mid-September. Coins found in the purse of a woman buried in the ash include one with a 15th imperatorial acclamation among the emperor 's titles.
These coins could not have been minted before the second week of September. Titus appointed two ex-consuls to organise a relief effort, while donating large amounts of money from the imperial treasury to aid the victims of the volcano.
Soon after the burial of the city, survivors and possibly thieves came to salvage valuables, including the marble statues from the forum and other precious materials from buildings.
There is wide evidence of post-eruption disturbance, including holes made through walls. The city was not completely buried, and tops of larger buildings would have been above the ash making it obvious where to dig or salvage building material.
Over the following centuries, its name and location were forgotten, though it still appeared on the Tabula Peutingeriana of the 4th century.
Further eruptions particularly in — and covered the remains more deeply. The area became known as the La Civita the city due to the features in the ground.
The next known date that any part was unearthed was in , when architect Domenico Fontana while digging an underground aqueduct to the mills of Torre Annunziata ran into ancient walls covered with paintings and inscriptions.
His aqueduct passed through and under a large part of the city  and would have had to pass though many buildings and foundations, as still can be seen in many places today, but he kept quiet and nothing more came of the discovery.
In , Francesco Picchetti saw a wall inscription mentioning decurio Pompeiis "town councillor of Pompeii" , but he associated it with a villa of Pompey.
Franceso Bianchini pointed out the true meaning and he was supported by Giuseppe Macrini, who in excavated some walls and wrote that Pompeii lay beneath La Civita .
Herculaneum itself was rediscovered in by workmen digging for the foundations of a summer palace for the King of Naples , Charles of Bourbon.
Due to the spectacular quality of the finds, the Spanish military engineer Rocque Joaquin de Alcubierre made excavations to find further remains at the site of Pompeii in , even if the city was not identified.
Karl Weber directed the first scientific excavations. There was much progress in exploration when the French occupied Naples in and ruled over Italy from to The land on which Pompeii lies was expropriated and up to workers were used in the excavations.
The excavated areas in the north and south were connected. Parts of the Via dell'Abbondanza were also exposed in west—east direction and for the first time an impression of the size and appearance of the ancient town could be appreciated.
In the following years, the excavators struggled with lack of money and excavations progressed slowly, but with significant finds such as the houses of the Faun , of Menandro , of the Tragic Poet and of the Surgeon.
Giuseppe Fiorelli took charge of the excavations in and made greater progress. It was Fiorelli who realised these were spaces left by the decomposed bodies and so devised the technique of injecting plaster into them to recreate the forms of Vesuvius's victims.
This technique is still in use today, with a clear resin now used instead of plaster because it is more durable, and does not destroy the bones, allowing further analysis.
Fiorelli also introduced scientific documentation. He divided the city into the present nine areas regiones and blocks insulae and numbered the entrances of the individual houses domus , so that each is identified by these three numbers.
Fiorelli also published the first periodical with excavation reports. Under Fiorelli's successors the entire west of the city was exposed.
In the s, Amedeo Maiuri excavated for the first time in older layers than that of 79 AD in order to learn about the settlement history.
Maiuri made the last excavations on a grand scale in the s, and the area south of the Via dell'Abbondanza and the city wall was almost completely uncovered, but they were poorly documented scientifically.
Preservation was haphazard and presents today's archaeologists with great difficulty. Questionable reconstruction was done in the s and s after the severe earthquake of , which caused great destruction.
Since then, except for targeted soundings and excavations, work was confined to the excavated areas. Further excavations on a large scale are not planned and today archaeologists try to reconstruct, to document and, above all, to stop the ever faster decay.
Under the 'Great Pompeii Project' over 2. As of August , these excavations have resumed on unexcavated areas of Regio V.
Objects buried beneath Pompeii were well-preserved for almost 2, years as the lack of air and moisture allowed little to no deterioration.
However, once exposed, Pompeii has been subject to both natural and man-made forces, which have rapidly increased deterioration.
Weathering, erosion, light exposure, water damage, poor methods of excavation and reconstruction, introduced plants and animals, tourism, vandalism and theft have all damaged the site in some way.
The lack of adequate weather protection of all but the most interesting and important buildings has allowed original interior decoration to fade or be lost.
Two-thirds of the city has been excavated, but the remnants of the city are rapidly deteriorating. Furthermore, during World War II many buildings were badly damaged or destroyed by bombs dropped in several raids by the Allied forces.
The concern for conservation has continually troubled archaeologists. The ancient city was included in the World Monuments Watch by the World Monuments Fund , and again in and in In the organisation claimed that Pompeii "desperately need[ed] repair" and called for the drafting of a general plan of restoration and interpretation.
Kress Foundation. Today, funding is mostly directed into conservation of the site; however, due to the expanse of Pompeii and the scale of the problems, this is inadequate in halting the slow decay of the materials.
A study recommended an improved strategy for interpretation and presentation of the site as a cost-effective method of improving its conservation and preservation in the short term.
The structure was not open to visitors, but the outside was visible to tourists. There was no immediate determination as to what caused the building to collapse, although reports suggested water infiltration following heavy rains might have been responsible.
There has been fierce controversy after the collapse, with accusations of neglect. Under the Romans after the conquest by Sulla in 89 BC, Pompeii underwent a process of urban development which accelerated in the Augustan period from about 30 BC.
New public buildings include the amphitheatre with palaestra or gymnasium with a central natatorium cella natatoria or swimming pool, two theatres, the Eumachia Building and at least four public baths.
The amphitheatre has been cited by scholars as a model of sophisticated design, particularly in the area of crowd control.
Other service buildings were the Macellum "meat market" ; the Pistrinum "mill" ; the Thermopolium a fast food place that served hot and cold dishes and beverages , and cauponae "cafes" or "dives" with a seedy reputation as hangouts for thieves and prostitutes.
At least one building, the Lupanar , was dedicated to prostitution. The aqueduct was a branch of the great Serino Aqueduct built to serve the other large towns in the Bay of Naples region and the important naval base at Misenum.
The castellum aquae is well preserved, and includes many details of the distribution network and its controls.
Modern archaeologists have excavated garden sites and urban domains to reveal the agricultural staples of Pompeii's economy.
Pompeii was fortunate to have had fertile soil for crop cultivation. The soils surrounding Mount Vesuvius preceding its eruption have been revealed to have had good water-retention capabilities, implying productive agriculture.
The Tyrrhenian Sea 's airflow provided hydration to the soil despite the hot, dry climate. Evidence of wine imported nationally from Pompeii in its most prosperous years can be found from recovered artefacts such as wine bottles in Rome.
Agricultural policymaker Columella suggested that each vineyard in Rome produced a quota of three cullei of wine per jugerum , otherwise the vineyard would be uprooted.
The nutrient-rich lands near Pompeii were extremely efficient at this and were often able to exceed these requirements by a steep margin, therefore providing the incentive for local wineries to establish themselves.
Remains of large formations of constructed wineries were found in the Forum Boarium, covered by cemented casts from the eruption of Vesuvius.
Carbonised food plant remains, roots, seeds and pollens, have been found from gardens in Pompeii, Herculaneum, and from the Roman villa at Torre Annunziata.
They revealed that emmer wheat, Italian millet , common millet , walnuts, pine nuts, chestnuts, hazel nuts, chickpeas, bitter vetch , broad beans, olives, figs, pears, onions, garlic, peaches, carob, grapes, and dates were consumed.
All but the dates could have been produced locally. The discovery of erotic art in Pompeii and Herculaneum left the archaeologists with a dilemma stemming from the clash of cultures between the mores of sexuality in ancient Rome and in Counter-Reformation Europe.
An unknown number of discoveries were hidden away again. A wall fresco depicting Priapus , the ancient god of sex and fertility, with his grotesquely enlarged penis, was covered with plaster.
Many artefacts from the buried cities are preserved in the Naples National Archaeological Museum. In , when King Francis visited the Pompeii exhibition there with his wife and daughter, he was so embarrassed by the erotic artwork that he had it locked away in a "secret cabinet" gabinetto segreto , a gallery within the museum accessible only to "people of mature age and respected morals".
Re-opened, closed, re-opened again and then closed again for nearly years, the Naples "Secret Museum" was briefly made accessible again at the end of the s the time of the sexual revolution and was finally re-opened for viewing in Minors are still allowed entry only in the presence of a guardian or with written permission.
Pompeii has been a popular tourist destination for over years;  it was on the Grand Tour. By , it was attracting almost 2.
To combat problems associated with tourism, the governing body for Pompeii, the 'Soprintendenza Archeologica di Pompei', have begun issuing new tickets that allow tourists to visit cities such as Herculaneum and Stabiae as well as the Villa Poppaea , to encourage visitors to see these sites and reduce pressure on Pompeii.
Pompeii is a driving force behind the economy of the nearby town of Pompei. Many residents are employed in the tourism and hospitality industry, serving as taxi or bus drivers, waiters, or hotel staff.
Excavations at the site have generally ceased due to a moratorium imposed by the superintendent of the site, Professor Pietro Giovanni Guzzo.
The site is generally less accessible to tourists than in the past, with less than a third of all buildings open in the s being available for public viewing today.
The film, Journey to Italy , starring George Sanders and Ingrid Bergman , includes a scene at Pompeii in which they witness the excavation of a cast of a couple that perished in the eruption.
Pompeii was the setting for the British comedy television series Up Pompeii! Pompeii also featured in the second episode of the fourth season of revived BBC science fiction series Doctor Who , named " The Fires of Pompeii ",  which featured Caecilius as a character.
In , the rock band Pink Floyd filmed a live concert titled Pink Floyd: Live at Pompeii , in which they performed six songs in the ancient Roman amphitheatre in the city.
The audience consisted only of the film's production crew and some local children. Siouxsie and the Banshees wrote and recorded the punk-inflected dance song "Cities in Dust", which describes the disaster that befell Pompeii and Herculaneum in AD The song appears on their album Tinderbox , released in , on Polydor Records.
The jacket of the single remix of the song features the plaster cast of the chained dog killed in Pompeii. Pompeii is a novel written by Robert Harris published in featuring the account of the aquarius's race to fix the broken aqueduct in the days leading up to the eruption of Vesuvius, inspired by actual events and people.
The lyrics refer to the city and the eruption of Mount Vesuvius. Herculaneum is a good alternative if you don't want to do too much walking or if the temperatures are particularly scorching, as it has more shade than Pompeii.
We do not recommend visiting Pompeii and Herculaneum in one day, as it is simply too tiring. Instead of attempting to see both Pompeii and Herculaneum in one day, we suggest a trip up to the crater at the peak of Mount Vesuvius either before or after visiting one of the nearby archaeological ruins.
Wear sturdy shoes and clothes suitable for a short hike up the trail. Buses depart every 50 minutes and ride takes about 55 minutes; tickets can be purchased on board for EUR 2.
The trip continues on foot with a mountain guide up to the crater. Departures hourly from 9am to 3pm.
Autobus Vesuvio Express: This bus departs from the Circumvesuviana Ercolano station and arrives at 1, meters above sea level. From here, you proceed on foot with a mountain guide about a minute walk.
Departures every 40 minutes from am. Departure from: Naples. Duration 9 hours. Duration 8 hours. Duration 3 hours. Departure from: Naples, Pompeii.
Duration 2 hours. Departure from: Naples, Amalfi, Ravello. Duration 4 hours. Departure from: Positano. The easiest way to reach the Pompeii ruins from Sorrento or Naples is via the Circumvesuviana train that runs between Sorrento and Naples.
The train leaves from Piazza Garibaldi in Naples from the underground platforms of the Napoli Centrale station. From the ground-level platforms where high-speed trains arrive and depart, follow the signs downstairs to platform 3 where trains to Pompeii depart.
Note the displays that list the next departing train for Sorrento - Pompei so you don't end up in Sarno! Assistance regarding tours, private transfers, bookings, and other experiences.
We generally respond within 24 hours. We do not provide information or assistance with booking trains and buses. Visit Pompeii and Vesuvius 3.
Hours for Pompeii and Herculaneum April through October : 9am - pm last entry at 6pm November through March : 9am - 5pm last entry at pm Closed : 1 January, 25 December Tickets can be purchased at the ticket offices at the entrance to each site or through the online ticket office.
Skip-the-line tickets to Pompeii Skip-the-line tickets to Herculaneum. Luggage deposit Next to the ticket office at the entrance, there is a free baggage check.
Should I visit Pompeii or Herculaneum? The Ruins of Pompeii Recommended because: It's a unique example of a perfectly preserved Roman city with temples, theaters, homes, restaurants, and public buildings.