Vikings Shield

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Vikings Shield

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With both sides using the basic shield wall strategy, the fight became about which side could maintain their cohesion the longest.

Though most warriors probably longed for the swift, flashy dances of death the sagas sang of, most battles started out as shoving matches with the frontlines of each opposing shield wall crushing against each other.

Death or disability would come as a seax long knife under the shield rim or a spearhead over it. A simple slip could mean death. When shield walls broke and gave way to melees, individual talent and prowess could again assert itself, but the Viking way of war was primarily organization, teamwork, patience, and courage in the face of blind chaos.

We should mention that while the shield wall idea is widely taken for granted by historians, not everyone believes it happened that way.

One particularly vocal critic is University of Copenhagen archaeologist, Rolf Warming. Warming's research found — as countless other weapons tests had also found — that Viking shields cannot stand up to repeated determined blows of some battlefield weapons.

Warming argues that the many references to shield walls in sagas are merely poetic descriptions and that Vikings instead charged in using a variety of formations, warding off attacks with their shields and overwhelming the enemy through shock and awe.

Most experts would agree with Warming that the Viking shield is better to ward away blows than to receive them flush, and that Vikings were known both for ferocity and creative battle strategies.

By depriving the enemy room to swing, the Viking shield should have held up fairly well, though we do see throughout the sagas, poems, and histories that shields were routinely broken in battle.

Warming's many valid points, as well as the arguments against them, are just one more example of how there is almost nothing one can say about the Vikings that is not open for debate.

This debate will probably continue for some time to come. So, we have looked at how shields were used by Vikings entering battle side-by-side, but how were they used in the melee or in one-on-one fights, when the Viking had more freedom of movement but also degrees of danger?

This is a question that has been receiving more and more attention, not only from historians but also filmmakers, reenactors, and HEMA historical European martial arts practitioners.

Unfortunately, an honest answer is "we don't know for sure. The sagas offer rousing descriptions and many clues, but no step-by-step instructions.

One method used by experts is to reverse engineer Viking fighting styles by applying known fighting methods from other places or times to Viking Age technology and goals, laboring under the presupposition that things do not change any more than they have to.

This can be very helpful but has many inherent problems. Another method is to examine the items themselves in this case, the Viking shield in context through experimentation, and to see what answers they present.

Viking shields for sale. For example, consider the center grip of the Viking shield. These shields were held this way by choice, not because strapped shields had not been invented yet.

However, the center grip creates a pivot point. If the shield is struck to one side or the other with any force, the shield swivels on this pivot point.

In the shield wall, where shields overlapped, this effect would be negated, but in single combat, there is no way for the Viking to prevent the shield from turning except to reinforce it with his weapon hand.

From these facts and observations we can conclude that this movement of the shield was not seen as a disadvantage, but rather a feature to use in one's own shield skill and to exploit in the enemy.

Thus, Vikings likely used the swiveling motion of their center-gripped shields to redirect forces away from them, or to outmaneuver, bind, jam, or otherwise thwart their enemy's attack.

One of the leading Viking combat researchers today, and a big proponent of the aforementioned technique, is Roland Warzecha. Warzecha has many demonstrations and tutorials available online, but like Rolf Warming he has many critics and counter points of view.

More theories and materials are being produced almost daily, thanks to HEMA revival and the internet. This is all just as well, for it is unlikely that the Viking shield — or anything else they did — was only used one way.

The best way to discover the truth is to study what is available and then to pick a shield up and try it out for yourself.

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Viking Scabbard Chape Silver. Frigga's Key Pendant Bronze. Quick view. The aggressive posture moves the line of defense well away from the body.

Attacks can be parried or deflected or broken up well before they reach the body. The angle prevents the shield from being driven straight in to the combatant's body, which might pin his arms and limit his options.

The angle also allows incoming blows to be deflected, rather than being caught straight on. Deflecting the blow, rather than stopping it, puts less force on both the shield, and the combatant's arm, reducing the likelihood that either will break.

Egill used this technique against Berg-Önundur in chapter 58 of Egils saga. Egill placed his shield at an angle so that the spear kesja thrown by Önundur was deflected by the shield and glanced off.

That is not to say that the flat of the shield was never used for parrying a weapon in the Viking age. Surely, a warrior would parry with whatever was available in the heat of battle.

That the saga author found this notable enough to mention suggests that perhaps this usage of the shield was not common. The author also comments that Lambi's sword did not "bite" the shield, again, suggesting that perhaps a different outcome was expected.

Another approach to using a Viking shield has recently been suggested, similar to the peek-a-boo guard used by modern boxers.

The shield is held up near the head, with the shield hand near the face. The position provides significant protection to the head and to the all-important central nervous system.

The grip is very efficient in its use of body resources, since the weight of the shield is locked in place and carried by the skeletal system rather than being held in place by the muscles of the arm and shoulder.

The shield is moved for defense using small motions of the arm and hip, making for extremely fast parries from either side, with little effort.

The orientation of the shield grip with the hand and wrist, along with the large contact area with the body means the shield is much more solidly positioned against incoming strikes, making it less likely to be hammered out of position.

Additionally, when the shield edge is used offensively as discussed later in this article , a twist of the hips applies the power from the strong muscles of the lower body to the strike, making for a devastating attack.

This high shield position has many advantages when fighting from the ground, as well, after a fighter has been wounded or otherwise forced down.

Virtually the entire body is shielded. Visibility is good, and many attacks are still possible. Yet, this approach to using the shield has many problems not yet resolved.

It's more difficult to defend against low attacks. It's easy to blind oneself to an opponent during some defenses. Additionally, the shield takes a lot of abuse from the opponent's weapons in this position.

Yet the advantages of this approach to shield use, both in speed and efficiency, are so significant that we are reluctant to discard it out of hand.

Perhaps one shield position was used for close-in fighting, and another for more distant fighting.

Our research continues. One example of the aggressive defensive use of the shield is binding the opponent's weapons, opening a new line of attack.

By sweeping his shield from outside to inside across his front, a combatant can capture and trap his opponent's weapons with his shield, leaving the opponent open to an attack right.

This kind of shield bind can also be used to apply pressure to the opponent's body, allowing control of his movements. In the photo to the left, Brown has put Blue in a poor shield bind.

Brown controls Blue's body with his shield bind, but Brown has neglected to control Blue's weapons. Blue is about to give Brown a lesson in the importance of maintaining that control.

The futility of hiding behind a shield as if it were a wall is graphically illustrated in this series of photographs. The shield was made of six wooden planks, butted and glued together.

The planks were Quaking Aspen Populus tremuloides , a hardwood having similar properties to Basswood Tilia , also known as Linden outside of North America.

The boss was attached to the front by clinched forged nails, and the handgrip was similarly attached to the back.

A rawhide edging was attached to the rim by tacks. No iron reinforcements were used on the back, and no facing was used on the front.

The shield was affixed to a wooden stand that simulated a human grip on the shield. A cut was made from a ward without a wind-up, as one might do in a combat situation.

The axe penetrated the shield easily. The axe split the plank from one end to the other, and the fragments were held in place by the rawhide edging.

If a hand had been holding the shield when the blow struck, the axe would have partially severed the hand. With the second blow, the shield was destroyed.

Again, the plank was split from end to end, and the rawhide edging failed. The handgrip broke in several places, and the shield fell apart.

The same test was made on an identical shield that was faced with leather. The first blow penetrated the shield, but did not split the planks.

There was no damage to the shield, other than the penetration, and the shield remained an effective defense. Even after four solid blows, the shield was still intact, without any splits.

It remained a solid, usable defense, demonstrating the benefit of a facing on shield. It wasn't until the sixth blow that the shield failed, due to the shattering of the handgrip.

This failure suggests that a solid iron reinforcement would be beneficial for extending the utility of the shield faced with leather.

A slow motion video of one of the axe blows may be seen here. The benefits of using a shield constructed of layers of wood compared to a shield contructed of planks is clearly visible in the photos to the right.

The unfaced planked shield offers little protection after just two hits, while the unfaced plied shield continues to offer significant protection, even after it had been penetrated by an axe five times.

The unfaced plied shield left was pierced many dozens of times with a spear and remained intact, while the unfaced planked shield right flew apart into pieces on the second hit, with shards of wood and rawhide edging flying in all directions.

Further research and tests are planned. Would a hand have been able to hold a shield given this kind of impact?

Would bones have broken under the force of the blow? What are appropriate responses for each combatant when a weapon penetrates and is trapped by the shield, which happened several times during these test cuts?

In addition to its obvious defensive uses, the shield can also be used offensively. The edge of the shield can be used for punching, turning it into a very effective set of "brass knuckles".

If a combatant does not take care to control his opponent's shield, he may quickly find his teeth have been knocked out.

The attack can be made with the arm and shoulder, or very powerfully and quickly using the hips.

Using the high shield position described earlier on this page, it's easy to imagine delivering a lethal one-handed punch with the edge of the shield.

However, the saga suggests that Björn used two hands. A speculative reconstruction of this move is shown in this combat demo video , part of a longer fight.

A speculative reconstruction of that move is shown to the left, and in this combat demo video , part of a longer fight.

Hurstwic has conducted research on how and when a Viking warrior might choose to throw his shield, detailed in this short video.

A fighter might run in under an opponent and bash him or smother him with his shield, shown to the right and in the same combat demo video.

The stories also describe instances where the shield was used completely passively. Shields were thrown on fallen combatants during a battle to protect them from further injury.

His companions freed Grani and laid him in a hollow and covered him with shields. A swimmer under attack from missiles thrown from the shore might cover his back with his shield to protect himself while swimming.

We tried this to test whether it was possible to swim with a shield on one's back, and whether the shield provided any protection.

Swimming with a shiled while wearing Viking clothing was no problem. The shield seemed to provide some significant protection to the swimmer from arrows fired from the land, although the archers commented that the shield made the swimmer a better target.

This is called the shield boss and is often the only part which is preserved after years in the ground. The date of a shield can be established from the form of the shield boss, which varied throughout the Iron Age and the Viking period.

Shield bosses are often found in graves, in which shields accompanied the dead on their final journey. A rare find was made at Trelleborg, near Slagelse, in Archaeological excavations at the site uncovered an almost complete shield.

This is made of pine wood and has a diameter of around 80 cm. Presumably the shield was used when the fortress was in operation at the end of the s.

This is only the second site from Scandinavia that has produced one or more complete Viking shields. The shield was found in waterlogged conditions — which have resulted in it still being preserved today.

It has a hole in the middle and a grip is also present. Originally a boss must have been attached in this part of the shield, but it was not found in the excavations.

The most impressive collection of complete Viking shields was recovered from the Norwegian burial at Gokstad. Here a ship was buried, together with a prince or king and large numbers of grave goods.

Amongst these were 64 round shields painted with yellow and blue paint. The shields are relatively thin, and research has shown that they would split easily when struck with arrows, axes and swords.

It is therefore thought that they were originally covered with animal skin, which shrinks slightly when it dries out, thus increasing the strength of the shields.

The addition of animal skin also meant that the shields were less lightly to split, and thus relatively thin pieces of wood could be used to keep their weight down.

The benefits of this kind of edging are shown graphically later on this page. The Gokstad shields have a series of small holes all around the periphery of the shields.

It is thought that the leather edging was held in place on these shields either with iron nails, or with stitching that passed through these holes, as shown on the reproduction shield to the left.

Some shields have evidence of iron or bronze clamps around the edge, perhaps to hold the leather edging in place. A speculative reconstruction of an iron clamp is shown to the right.

Occasionally, these clamps were not uniformly distributed around the edge of the shield, suggesting that they were used to reinforce and protect a damaged edge.

There is negligible archaeological evidence for iron-rimmed shields, although in chapter 40 of Grettis saga , it is said that a berserk carried an iron-rimmed shield to a duel against Grettir.

A highly speculative interpretation of an iron-rimmed shield is shown to the right. The shield fragment found at Baldursheimur in north Iceland sketched to the left has been interpreted as either a fragment of a shield rim, or as a fragment of a reinforcement on the rear of the shield.

With so little of the original left to go on, either interpretation seems speculative. The fragment is just 8. A leather sling, used to carry the shield over the shoulder right , would have been common.

There are many instances in the stories in which a fighter threw his shield over his back in order to wield his weapon with two hands, such as in chapter 53 of Egils saga.

Shields were slung over the shoulder when not in combat, as well. He worked with his shield hanging by his side.

The spear glanced off the shield and entered the horse's belly, killing the animal. The sling could sometimes be a dangerous nuisance.

The attack hit Björn's helmet and glanced off, but the back of the axe caught Björn's shield strap, redirecting the blow into his chest.

Björn received minor wounds in his chest and leg from the attack. Björn threw his shield away, and struck at Eyvindr, causing his death.

The front of some shields may have been covered with leather. The leather made the shield more resistant to the impact of weapons, although it also added significant weight.

The grain of the leather facing in the reproduction shield to the left is clearly visible through the paint. The benefit of a facing such as this is shown graphically later on this page.

Alternatively, shields may have been faced with linen, held in place with hide glue, as was done on the reproduction shield shown to the right.

The linen adds negligible weight, but the fibers greatly strengthen the wood, holding the structure together even if the wood splits.

Some surviving shields show evidence of paint mineral pigments ground into an oil base on the wood surface, suggesting that they were not covered.

Either way, shields were probably painted and decorated. The shields on the Gokstad ship were painted black and yellow. A Viking-age shield recently found at Trelleborg was painted red and white, in accordance with the requirements of the old Norwegian law codes.

The sagas suggest that carrying a red shield signaled hostile intent e. Even if a shield were not decorated, it is highly likely that it would be sealed with oil so that it repelled and resisted water.

A shield that soaked up water from rain or sea spray could easily double in weight, becoming so heavy and waterlogged as to be nearly useless.

The thin, unfaced reproduction shields shown in the photographs on this page weigh about 5kg 11lbs , while the thicker, leather covered shields weigh more than 7kg 15lbs when dry.

At the end of the Viking era, kite shields were used, shown in the photo to the left and illustrated in the Bayeux Tapestry right.

Their shape helped protect a fighter while riding on the back of a horse. However, during the Viking age, fighting was done on foot, so it seems unlikely they would have seen wide use.

Evidence from skaldic poetry suggests round shields. Snorri Sturluson, writing well after the Viking age, says that in earlier times, shields were decorated on the border called the circle baugr , which also has the meaning of "ring".

Thus, Snorri says that in poetry, shields should be referred to as a circle, suggesting that shields were round. Episodes in the sagas can be quoted to dispute this conclusion.

Round shields can scarcely be said to have "tips", suggesting that the shield in question was a kite shield.

Some modern translations render this as "lower part of the shield", but "tail of the shield" also fits.

Other kinds of shields are mentioned in the sagas, including targa target and buklari buckler , although it's not clear from the stories how these differed from normal shields skjöldr.

In translation, the two words are usually rendered as "small shield. Targets and bucklers are small shields known to have been used in later historical periods, although targets became larger in the Renaissance.

Since the buckler protects against only one line of attack, the manual teaches that it is used to protect the sword hand.

Overwhelmingly, the archaeological evidence, although sparse, supports only the use of large round shields in the Viking age.

Perhaps the saga language that suggests the use of kite shields or small shields is an anachronism, an error in which the saga author placed later shields from his own era into the earlier Viking era about which he was writing.

The Viking shield is a very effective defense. It is worth noting that a shield does not absorb the shock of the blow.

Rather, it redistributes the shock over a larger area, making it possible for the human body to absorb the force of the blow with reduced risk of injury.

Additionally, the shield can be used to push an attack off-line, so that the attack is no longer a direct threat. The shield blocks many lines of attack simultaneously.

In a neutral, relaxed position, the shield protects from neck to knees left. The head and the lower legs are exposed and unprotected.

Thus, the head and lower leg were likely targets. While the shield can be moved rapidly to ward off blows coming in from a variety of directions, studies of skeletal remains show that many battle injuries occurred to the head and legs.

For example, the photo to the right shows the skull of an 11 th century fighting man who was about twenty years old at the time of his death.

The top of the skull was removed by a blow from a sword. The terminus of the blow is indicated in the photo by the clear blade.

Leg injuries visible in the skeletal remains from Fishergate York suggest deliberate attempts to sever the leg muscles, causing the combatant to fall without killing him.

Offensive weapons sometimes stuck fast in a shield after a blow. When that happened, a clever fighter could twist his shield either to break the weapon, or to break it loose from the grip of its owner.

The sagas suggest that the shield might be used two handed to defend against a powerful attack. Bolli dropped his sword to hold the shield with both hands.

This trick did not stop Helgi's spear from penetrating the shield and wounding Bolli. In chapter 24 of Grettis saga , Gunnar held his shield with two hands against an attack by Grettir.

The trick didn't work in this case, either. Grettir hacked with his sax between Gunnar's body and the shield, cutting off both of Gunnar's hands.

A speculative reconstruction of two-handed use of the shield is shown in this combat demo video , part of a longer fight.

Occasionally, men dropped their shields in battle because they temporarily needed a free hand for some other purpose. The spear found its mark, and Grani was seriously wounded.

Many people think of a shield as a wall to hide behind. While shields can be used passively in that manner, a more aggressive posture and use are advantageous.

In single combat, the shield was probably held at an angle to the body, either to the outside to the left side for a right-handed man or inside to the right side.

The shield is held forward, but not in front of, the combatant, contacting hand, arm, and shoulder and becoming a part of the combatant's body.

Too far forward results in a slower, less powerful and less effective defense that wastes the combatant's physical resources.

This stance puts the combatant in an aggressive position with good defensive options. The aggressive posture moves the line of defense well away from the body.

Attacks can be parried or deflected or broken up well before they reach the body. The angle prevents the shield from being driven straight in to the combatant's body, which might pin his arms and limit his options.

The angle also allows incoming blows to be deflected, rather than being caught straight on. Deflecting the blow, rather than stopping it, puts less force on both the shield, and the combatant's arm, reducing the likelihood that either will break.

Egill used this technique against Berg-Önundur in chapter 58 of Egils saga. Egill placed his shield at an angle so that the spear kesja thrown by Önundur was deflected by the shield and glanced off.

That is not to say that the flat of the shield was never used for parrying a weapon in the Viking age. Surely, a warrior would parry with whatever was available in the heat of battle.

That the saga author found this notable enough to mention suggests that perhaps this usage of the shield was not common.

The author also comments that Lambi's sword did not "bite" the shield, again, suggesting that perhaps a different outcome was expected.

Another approach to using a Viking shield has recently been suggested, similar to the peek-a-boo guard used by modern boxers.

The shield is held up near the head, with the shield hand near the face. The position provides significant protection to the head and to the all-important central nervous system.

The grip is very efficient in its use of body resources, since the weight of the shield is locked in place and carried by the skeletal system rather than being held in place by the muscles of the arm and shoulder.

The shield is moved for defense using small motions of the arm and hip, making for extremely fast parries from either side, with little effort.

The orientation of the shield grip with the hand and wrist, along with the large contact area with the body means the shield is much more solidly positioned against incoming strikes, making it less likely to be hammered out of position.

Additionally, when the shield edge is used offensively as discussed later in this article , a twist of the hips applies the power from the strong muscles of the lower body to the strike, making for a devastating attack.

This high shield position has many advantages when fighting from the ground, as well, after a fighter has been wounded or otherwise forced down.

Virtually the entire body is shielded. Visibility is good, and many attacks are still possible. Yet, this approach to using the shield has many problems not yet resolved.

It's more difficult to defend against low attacks. It's easy to blind oneself to an opponent during some defenses. Additionally, the shield takes a lot of abuse from the opponent's weapons in this position.

Yet the advantages of this approach to shield use, both in speed and efficiency, are so significant that we are reluctant to discard it out of hand.

Perhaps one shield position was used for close-in fighting, and another for more distant fighting.

Our research continues. One example of the aggressive defensive use of the shield is binding the opponent's weapons, opening a new line of attack.

By sweeping his shield from outside to inside across his front, a combatant can capture and trap his opponent's weapons with his shield, leaving the opponent open to an attack right.

This kind of shield bind can also be used to apply pressure to the opponent's body, allowing control of his movements.

In the photo to the left, Brown has put Blue in a poor shield bind. Brown controls Blue's body with his shield bind, but Brown has neglected to control Blue's weapons.

Blue is about to give Brown a lesson in the importance of maintaining that control. The futility of hiding behind a shield as if it were a wall is graphically illustrated in this series of photographs.

The shield was made of six wooden planks, butted and glued together. The planks were Quaking Aspen Populus tremuloides , a hardwood having similar properties to Basswood Tilia , also known as Linden outside of North America.

The boss was attached to the front by clinched forged nails, and the handgrip was similarly attached to the back. A rawhide edging was attached to the rim by tacks.

No iron reinforcements were used on the back, and no facing was used on the front. The shield was affixed to a wooden stand that simulated a human grip on the shield.

For this reason, most battles of Late Antiquity and the early Middle Ages involved meeting shield walls with shield walls. The leather made the shield more resistant to the impact of weapons, although it also added significant weight. In the Continue reading Saga of St. There was no damage to the shield, other than the penetration, and the shield remained an effective defense. At the center of the shield was a domed iron boss, which protected the hand. According to Snorri Sturluson's Prose Eddaaxes were often named after she-trolls. The sagas offer rousing descriptions and many clues, but no step-by-step instructions. This helmet has a Landesvertrieb Verkehr Hamburg cap, and there is evidence that it also may have had a mail aventail. Yet, this approach to using the shield has many problems not yet resolved. Anyway, the Vikingsthey took their shieldsdented and blood-stained in battle, right, heated them up, poured batter on them and the ebelskiver was born. Register Login. Elapsed time: 98 ms. Da sich nur wenige Schilde im Laufe der Geschichte erhalten haben, führte dies zu lebhaften Diskussionen unter Historikern über die Art und Weise, wie sie hergestellt wurden. Now Aliexpress provides large wide range of click at this page but cheap price Vikings shield Funktionsweise Paypal different users. On his shield Casinoclub.Com the Viking his Prognose Nba in his hand and his tent is the heavenly blue. Viking Shields on the Sides of Ships: Historical or Not? Besides axe and ship, the Viking shields are among the things that made the Vikings stand out. When in. - Erkunde kelsos Pinnwand „Viking shield“ auf Pinterest. Weitere Ideen zu Wikinger schild, Wikinger und Keltisch. Norse-Raven-Shield-Shop. Your favorite art brought to life, like these "Game of Thrones" themed punch shields. Wikinger SchildWikinger RüstungSchild Selber​. Aug 16, - Epic Viking Shield: I made this shield FOR ME!!!Check out my YT channelSUBSCRIBE HERE. M ratings. Download. Epic Viking Shield - Space Wolves - Welcome Haar Design Vikings Art, Nordic Vikings,. Article from internetmarketingstrategies.co Hammaborg concentrates on fighting with large, flat center-gripped round shields-the typical Viking shield. When the Viking puts his finden Beste Spielothek in KС†nnernhis sword in hand, your tent is the sky blue. Viking Viking Wikinger Wiking Vikinger. Aber nach einem Vergleich des Textes Elfasio Official Landesvertrieb Verkehr Hamburg. QYFhandmade Store. Wikingerschilde Der Wikinger Schild hat eine interessante Geschichte. But after comparing the text Still worried about the high price for Vikings shield? By continuing to use AliExpress you accept our use of cookies just click for source more 2020 Geburtstag Queen our Privacy Policy. Kinitial Official Store. Results: Da sich nur wenige Schilde im Laufe der Geschichte erhalten haben, führte dies zu lebhaften Diskussionen unter Historikern über die Art und Weise, wie sie hergestellt wurden. Possibly inappropriate content Unlock. For the Throne Store. These examples may contain colloquial source based on your search. Join Reverso, it's free and fast! These examples may contain rude words based on your search. Hammaborg concentrates on fighting with large, flat center-gripped round shields-the typical Viking shield. Wikinger Schild 46 cm https://internetmarketingstrategies.co/free-online-casino-video-slots/frankfurt-bremen-highlights.php Dir. Preis: - OK.

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