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Mayan Gods Video
Alternatively, it is suggested that Hunab Ku refers to an originally Mayan deity who was worshiped before the Spanish arrived in Mesoamerica.
Huracan was one of the most powerful Mayan deities. He was considered the god of fire, storm and wind, and was one of the prominent deities of the Mayan pantheon who played a role in creating different versions of humanity.
Mayans believed that after the gods destroyed Earth in a great deluge at the end of a previous epoch, Huracan summoned the land out of the water until it finally rose.
In Mayan depictions, he is shown as a deity with one human leg and a serpent in the place of his other leg.
According to Mayan mythology , he also took part in destroying the previous failed attempts at creating humans. Itzamna was considered the creator deity in the Mayan pantheon.
He is among the most supreme Mayan deities and Mayans regarded him as the god of rulership. According to the estimates of the researchers, different trans-formative depictions in the extant Mayan sources refer to Itzamna.
If these theories are to be believed, Itzamna emerges as a deity referring to one of the earliest Mayan ancestors who was deified at a later period.
Snakes were a very popular symbol related to religion and mythology in the Mayan culture. The Mayan deity, Kukulkan, was a manifestation of this.
Kukulkan was considered a snake deity and had a cult-like following. Since similar serpent deities and figures existed among other Mesoamerican cultures as well, Kukulkan became one of the shared cultural traits which helped these cultures connect with each other.
It is believed that the magnificent pyramid-temple El Castillo in Chichen Itza was dedicated to Kukulkan. Mayans had a large pantheon comprising of many different gods.
Some of these gods were considered ancient and counted among the creator deities who created the Earth and humans a number of times. Other gods were associated with natural phenomenon such as thunder, lightning and rain.
Inscribed on his cheek, brow, or another part of his body is the quatrefoil symbol of the sun. His "Roman nose" has a pair of beads at the very tip.
The identification of Kinich Ahau with decapitation and jaguars is common in Maya iconography from the Late Preclassic to Postclassic periods.
Moan Chan is the aged merchant called Moan Chan or "Misty Sky" and God L, who is most often illustrated with a walking stick and a merchant's bundle.
On one vase God L is portrayed with a broad-brimmed hat trimmed with feathers, and a raptor sits on the crown.
His cloak is commonly a black-and-white design of stepped chevrons and rectangles or one made from a jaguar pelt.
Misty Sky is most often illustrated as an ancient man, stooped with age, with a prominent, beaked nose and a sunken, toothless mouth. Occasionally pictured smoking a cigar, God L is also associated with tobacco, jaguars, and caves.
Chac Chel "Rainbow" or the "Great End" is known as Goddess O, an old and powerful woman who wears spotted jaguar ears and paws—or perhaps she is an older version of Ix Chel.
Unlike modern western mythology which perceives rainbows as beautiful and positive omens, the Maya considered them the "flatulence of the deities," and were thought to arise out of dry wells and caves, sources of sickness.
Frequently appearing clawed and fanged and wearing a skirt marked with death symbols, Chac Chel is associated with birth and creation, as well as death and the destruction and rebirth of the world.
She wears a twisted-serpent headdress. Ix Chel , or Goddess I, is a frequently clawed goddess who wears a serpent as a headdress.
Ix Chel is sometimes illustrated as a young woman and sometimes as an old one. Sometimes she is portrayed as a man, and at other times she has both male and female characteristics.
Some scholars argue that Ix Chel is the same deity as Chac Chel; the two are simply different aspects of the same goddess. There is even some evidence that Ix Chel is not this goddess's name, but whatever her name was, Goddess I is the goddess of the moon, childbirth, fertility, pregnancy, and weaving, and she is often illustrated wearing a lunar crescent, a rabbit and a beak-like nose.
According to colonial records, there were Maya shrines dedicated to her on Cozumel island. There are many other gods and goddesses in the Maya pantheon, avatars of others or versions of Pan-Mesoamerican deities, those who appear in some or all of the other Mesoamerican religions, such as Aztec, Toltec, Olmec, and Zapotec.
Here are a few of the most prevalent deities not mentioned above. Bicephalic Monster: A two-headed monster also known as the Celestial Monster or Cosmic Monster, with a front head with deer ears and capped with a Venus emblem, a skeletal, upsidedown rear head, and the body of a crocodile.
Diving God: A youthful figure that appears to be diving headfirst from the sky, often referred to as a bee god, although most scholars believe he represents the Maya Maize God or God E.
Fat God: A huge potbellied figure or simply a massive head, commonly illustrated in the Late Classic period as a bloated corpse with heavy swollen eyelids, refers to sidz , signifying gluttony or excessive desire.
Jester God: A shark god, with a head ornament that resembles that used on a medieval European court jester. Long-nosed and long-lipped deities: Numerous gods have been called long nosed or long lipped; those with upward-turning snouts are associated with serpents, those with downward curving snouts are birds.
Pauahtun: The Skybearer god, who corresponds to the four directions and appears in both single and quadripartite form God N , and sometimes wears a turtle carapace.
Scribal gods: Numerous avatars of gods are illustrated sitting cross-legged and writing: Itzamna appears as a scribe or a teacher of scribes, Chac is illustrated writing or painting or spewing out numbers strips of paper; and in the Popol Vuh are illustrated the monkey scribes and artists, Hun Batz and Hun Chuen.
Sky Bearers: Pan-Mesoamerican gods who had the task of sustaining the sky, four deities known as bacabs , related to Pauahtun. Tohil: Patron god of the Quiche at the time of the Spanish conquest, and the principal god named in the Popol Vuh, who demands blood sacrifice and might be another name for God K.
Vision Serpent: A rearing serpent with a single head and prominent snake markings whose mouth belches out gods, ancestors, and other nobles.
Water Lily Serpent: An undulating serpent with a head with a downward curving beak of a bird wearing a waterlily pad and flower as a hat; associated with the surface of still water.
Share Flipboard Email. Ancient History and Latin Expert. Gill is a Latinist, writer, and teacher of ancient history and Latin. He was often shown as a man with a hooked nose.
This was the god of war, violence, and sudden death including human sacrifices. He was usually shown with a black line down one cheek.
The Sun god was one of the most important gods of the Maya. They believed in making blood sacrifices to keep him happy.
As we have discussed previously in many of our mythology-covering articles , the pantheons of most historical cultures entailed a dynamic scope rather than a static capacity, wherein deities and their narratives evolved with time.
In essence, the Mayan deities were treated as supernatural entities, who while being powerful, could also be tricked and even killed by the cunning mortals.
In any case, in this article, we will aim to cover some of the major Mayan gods and goddesses who were venerated across most city-states.
It was later transcribed and translated to Spanish in the early 18th century. Also, note that in scholarly texts many of the Mayan gods and goddesses have their letter-based designations like God B or God D.
In the mythical narrative, his rulership over this vast and seemingly contrasting domains is borne by innate and even arcane knowledge, as opposed to supernatural strength and unquestioned royalty.
To that end, he was often portrayed as a toothless old man with an amiable demeanor, hooked nose, large eyes, and a cylindrical hat — alluding to his leadership qualities.
In some instances, he is perceived as the son of Hunab Ku — the might yet capricious creator god who brought about floods to end the race of humans.
Contrastingly, Itzamna poses as an antithesis of his father, since he aids the Maya people by inventing writing, calendar systems, agriculture, sciences, and medicines.
Simply put, he is perceived as a cultural figurehead who lays down the foundations of a civilization that is to flourish later. And talking of relations, Itzamna was also identified as the husband counterpart to Ix Chel or Goddess O — and together they were venerated as the couple that gave birth to an entire generation of Mayan gods.
To that end, Itzamna is also called by other names, including Kukulkan feathered serpent , and is represented like a two-headed serpent or even as a hybrid creature with both human and lizard or caiman like features.
Interestingly enough, much like her aforementioned male-counterpart Itzamna , Ix Chel, in the mythical narrative, was known for her dual aspect.
For example, as Goddess I, she was represented as a young and beautiful seductress who espouses fertility, marriage, and love. On the other hand, as Goddess O, Ix Chel or a deity who was similar to Ix Chel was represented as a wizened old woman who had the power to both create and destroy the earth.
Interestingly enough, in some cases, given his association to an element of the sky, the Mayan god is also regarded as an aspect of Itzamna , the aforementioned ruler of heavens.
To that end, in one mythical narrative, Ix Chel , the moon goddess, impresses him by wearing a fine woven dress, and the two finally become lovers although their relationship later turns tumultuous.
As for depictions, Kinich Ahau, befitting his regal status, was often represented with a hooked nose, squared large eyes, and even a beard in few drawings.
And like other comparable Mayan gods, he was also represented differently or in a dual manner in some codices, like an old man with crooked teeth in the Madrid Codex.
Incredibly enough, he was also associated with the jaguar , as it was believed that the sun god transformed into the feline predator during the night.
Moreover, Kinich Ahau was further venerated as the patron god of the day-unit since he embodied the sun and the Number Four.
Chaac Chac or Chaakh, also known as God B was the Mayan deity of rain — thus making him a very important deity in the agricultural civilization of the Maya.
In addition, he was also venerated as the god of thunder and storms — with one particular myth-based motif suggesting how he struck the clouds with jade axes and even snakes to bring down the rain.
Such actions nourished the various crops especially the maize, which is often ascribed as a gift of Chaac to the Maya people after he discovered the seedling inside the rock and fostered the natural cycle of life in terms of regeneration.
In some narratives, he is presented as the brother to the sun god Kinich Ahau. And while these brothers were close, Chaac fell for the beautiful wife of Kinich Ahau possibly Ix Chel and consequently suffered punishment for his immoral affair.
Interestingly enough, in spite of being the deity of rain, Chaac was believed to dwell not in the skies but deep within the caves and cenotes — signifying the sources of water.
In that regard, his Aztec Nahuatl counterpart is often perceived as Tlaloc — who was correlated with caves, springs, and mountains.
In many ways, he was perceived as the essence or power residing within the crops like maize that allowed them to grow, ripen, and ultimately sustain the Maya people.
To that end, Yumil Kaxob was often also associated with the Maize God. In some narratives, he is also represented as the son or essence of Chaac — and the father-son duo works together to bring forth rain and crops for the agricultural folks.
So, in many ways, Yumil Kaxob was venerated as an aspect of the life force that resides within the flora. However, like the proverbial phoenix, Kaxob had the undefeatable power of rejuvenation, which after a passage of time made him rise from his death, thereby once again completing the natural cycle.
Things get a bit complicated when it comes to the mythical scope of the Mayan gods of death. As for Yum Cimil, the god, espousing the state of decay, was represented with his skeletal mask, protruding belly filled with rotting matter , body adorned with bones, and a neckless bedecked with eyeless sockets.
In some narratives, he rules over the nine levels of the underworld known as Mitnal , where he takes sadistic pleasure in extinguishing the very essence of souls by torturing them with fire and water.
And interestingly enough, while he is often represented with motifs of corn sometimes in form of a headdress , Yum Kaax is not to be confused with the Maize God or God E.
Rather the deity, as the name suggests, was probably venerated as the guardian of the forest and protector of wildlife — both flora and fauna.
Mayans saw their gods act in every event. Because of the complexity, early European observers likely did not fully grasp the Mayan religion and pantheon.
However, scholars have deciphered enough of the Mayan codices and hieroglyphics to cite the major Mayan gods. These gods are listed below, but the list is not comprehensive by any means.
Itzamna is a creator god, one of the gods involved in creating human beings and father of the Bacabs, who upheld the corners of the world.
Itzamna taught humans the crafts of writing and medicine. Itzamna is sometimes identified with the high god Hunab Ku and the sun god Kinich Ahau.
A nature god, Yum Kaax is the god of wild plants and animals, the god of the woods. He is the god venerated by hunters and by farmers, who hunt wild animals or carve their fields out of his forest.
The Mayans had both a female and a male maize god and both a simple vegetative god and a more powerful, tonsured male maize god.
The tonsured maize god personifies maize, cacao beans and jade. He is a patron god of the scribal arts, dancing and feasting.
Mayan kings often dressed as the maize god during rituals of his life, death and regeneration. Hunab Ku is a pre-Columbian god whose name translates as the only God or the one God.
Scholars are still debating whether Hunab Ku is an indigenous god or a creation of the Spanish. Most think he is indigenous.
Kinich Ahau is the sun god of the Mayans, sometimes associated with or an aspect of Itzamna. During the Classic period, Kinich Ahau was used as a royal title, carrying the idea of the divine king.
He is also known in the Mayan codices as God G and is shown in many carvings on Mayan pyramids. Ix Chel is the goddess of medicine and midwifery, also known as the goddess of making children.
She is represented as an aged woman. Chaac is the goggled-eyed rain god, of prime importance to the Mayans. Chaac has a four-fold aspect, with each aspect representing the cardinal directions and colors.
Chaac brought clouds, thunder, lightning and most importantly, rain. Kukulkan is the feathered serpent god of the Mayans.
Kukulkan was worshipped by other Mesoamerican cultures such as the Aztecs, where the god was known as Quetzalcoatl.
A Mayan cult grew up around Kukulkan, the priests of which helped peaceful trade and communications among the Mayans.
Human sacrifices were offered to Kukulkan. Much of the Mayan religion is not clearly understood today because of its complexity and rich pantheon of deities.